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UNEP 2015. Green Energy Choices: The benefits, risks, and trade-offs of low-carbon technologies for electricity production. Report of the International Resource Panel. E.G.Hertwich, J. Aloisi de Larderel, A. Arvesen, P. Bayer, J. Bergesen, E. Bouman, T. Gibon, G. Heath, C. Peña, P. Purohit, A. Ramirez, S. Suh. 453 pp.

Stauffer, F., Bayer, P., Blum, P., Giraldo, N. M., & Kinzelbach, W. 2013. Thermal use of shallow groundwater. CRC Press, 266 pp. See the book's homepage or download the related Matlab scripts.



Refereed Publications



Kong, X.-Z., Deuber, C., Kittilä, A., Somogyvári, M., Mikutis, G., Bayer, P., Stark, W., Saar, M. 2018. Tomographic reservoir imaging with DNA-labeled silica nanotracers: The first field validation, - Environmental Science and Technology, accepted.

Moein, M. J. A., Somogyvari, M., Valley, B., Jalali, M., Loew, S., Bayer, P. 2018. Fracture network characterization using stress-based tomography, - Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, accepted.

Pophillat, W., Attard, G., Bayer, P., Hecht-Méndez, J., Blum, P. 2018. Analytical solutions for predicting thermal plumes of groundwater heat pump systems, Renewable Energy,

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Blum, P., Hamamoto, H., Arimoto, H., Taniguchi, M. 2018.  Comparing anthropogenic heat input and heat accumulation in the subsurface of Osaka, Japan, - Science of the Total Environment,  643, 1127-1136.

Vogler, D., Settgast, R., Annavarapu, C., Madonna, C., Bayer, P. Amann, F. 2018. Experiments and Simulations of Fully Hydro-Mechanically coupled Response of Rough Fractures exposed to High Pressure Fluid Injection,  - Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, 123(2), 1186-1200.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Winkler, G., Blum, P. 2018. Recent trends of groundwater temperatures in Austria, - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22, 3143–3154,.

Stoessel, F., Sonderegger, T., Bayer, P., Hellweg, S. 2018. Assessing the environmental impacts of soil compaction in Life Cycle Assessment, - Science of the Total Environment, 630, 913-921.



Vogler, D., Walsh, S.D.C., Bayer, P., Amann, F. 2017. Comparison of surface properties in natural and artificially generated fractures in a crystalline rock. - Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 50(11), 2891–2909. Corrrection.

Somogyvári, M., Jalali, M., Jiménez, S., Bayer P. 2017. Synthetic fracture network characterization with transdimensional inversion. - Water Resources Research, 53(6), 5104-5123.

Somogyvári, M., Bayer P. 2017. Field validation of thermal tracer tomography for reconstruction of aquifer heterogeneity. - Water Resources Research, (6), 5070-5084.

Hu, L.,  Doetsch, J., Brauchler, R., Bayer, P. 2017. Characterizing CO2 plumes in deep saline formations: comparison and joint evaluation of time-lapse pressure and seismic tomography, Geophysics, 82(4), 1-70.

Benz, S.A., Bayer, P., Blum, P. 2017. Global patterns of shallow groundwater temperatures, - Environ. Res. Letters, 12(3),  034005.

Rivera, J.A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. 2017. Increased ground temperatures in urban areas: Estimation of the technical geothermal potential. - Renewable Energy, 103, 388-400. - presented as Research highlight in Nature Energy.

Benz, S.A., Bayer, P., Blum, P. 2017. Identifying anthropogenic anomalies in air, surface and groundwater temperatures in Germany, - Science of the Total Environment, 584-585, 145–153.



Menberg, K, Pfister, S., Blum, P.,  Bayer, P. 2016. A matter of meters: State of the art in life cycle assessment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems. - Energy & Environmental Science, 9, 2720-2743.

Bayer, P., Rivera, J.A., Schweizer, D., Schaerli, U., Blum, P., Rybach, L. 2016. Extracting past atmospheric warming and urban heating effects from borehole temperature profiles - Geothermics, 64, 289-299.

Rivera, J.A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. 2016. Influence of spatially variable ground heat flux on closed-loop geothermal systems: Line source model with nonhomogeneous Cauchy-type top boundary conditions. - Applied Energy, 180, 572-585.

Hu, L.,  Brauchler, R., Bayer, P. 2016. Detection of carbon dioxide leakage during injection in deep saline formations by pressure tomography. - Water Resources Research, 52(7), 5676-5686.

Malama, B., Kuhlman, K.L., Brauchler, R., Bayer, P. 2016. Modeling cross-hole slug tests in an unconfined aquifer. - Journal of Hydrology 540, 784–796.

Rivera, J., Benz, S., Blum, P., Bayer, P. 2016. Increased Temperature In Urban Ground As Source Of Sustainable Energy. - International Journal of Energy Production and Management, 1(3), 263-271.

Vogler, D., Amann, F., Bayer, P., Elsworth, D. Permeability Evolution in Natural Fractures Subject to Cyclic Loading and Gouge Formation. - Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49(9), 3463-3479..

Somogyvári, M., Bayer, P., Brauchler, R. 2016. Travel time based thermal tracer tomography. - Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1885–1901.

Jiménez, S., Mariethoz, G., Brauchler, R., Bayer P. 2016. Smart pilot points using reversible-jump Markov-chain Monte Carlo. - Water Resources Research, 52(5), 3966-3983.

Rivera, J.A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. 2016. A finite line source model with Cauchy-type top boundary conditions for simulating near surface effects on borehole heat exchangers, - Energy, 98, 50–63.

Benz, S., Bayer, P., Goettsche, F., Olesen, F., Blum, P. 2016. Linking surface urban heat islands with groundwater temperatures, - Environ. Sci. Technol., 50(1), 70–78.



Jiménez, S., Brauchler, R., Hu, R., Hu, L., Schmidt, S., Ptak, T., Bayer, P. 2015. Prediction of solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer utilizing hydraulic conductivity and specific storage tomograms, - Water Resources Research, 51 (7), 5504-5520.

Bayer, P., Comunian, A., Ho╠łyng, D., Mariethoz, G. 2015. High resolution multi-facies realizations of sedimentary reservoir and aquifer analogs, - Sci. Data 2:150033 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.33.

Rivera, J.A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. 2015. Ground energy balance for borehole heat exchangers: Vertical fluxes, groundwater and storage, Renewable Energy, 83, 1341-1351.

Benz, S.A., Bayer, P., Menberg, K., Jung, S., Blum, P. 2015. Spatial resolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers, - Science of the Total Environment, 524-525C, 427-439.

Hu, L., Bayer, P., Alt-Epping, P., Tatomir, A., Sauter, M., Brauchler, R. 2015. Time-lapse pressure tomography for characterizing CO2 plume evolution in a deep saline aquifer, - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 39,91-106.

Rivera, J.A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. 2015. Analytical simulation of groundwater flow and land surface effects on thermal plumes of borehole heat exchangers, - Applied Energy, 146, 421-433.

Zhu, K., Bayer, P., Grathwohl, P., Blum, P. 2015. Analysis of groundwater temperature evolution in the subsurface urban heat island of Cologne, Germany, - Hydrological Processes, 29, 965-978. Supplement.



Menberg, K., Blum, P., Kurylyk, B. L., Bayer, P. 2014. Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change, - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18, 4453-4466.

Bayer, P.,  de Paly, M., Beck, M. 2014. Strategic optimization of borehole heat exchanger field for seasonal geothermal heating and cooling,  - Applied Energy, 136, 445-453.

Schwab, O., Bayer, P., Juraske, R., Verones, F., Hellweg, S. 2014. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions, - Waste Management, 34(10), 1884-1896. Supplement.

Pfister, S., Bayer, P. 2014. Monthly water stress: Spatially and temporally explicit consumptive water footprint of global crop production, Journal of Cleaner Production, 73(14), 52–62.

Wagner, V., Bayer, P., Bisch, G., Kübert, M., Blum, P. 2014. Hydraulic characterization of aquifers by thermal response testing: validation by large scale tank laboratory and field experiments, - Water Resources Research, 50, 1-15.

Allen, D.M., Bayer, P., Ferguson, G., Blum, P. 2014. Preface: Hydrogeology of shallow thermal systems, - Hydrogeology Journal, 22, 1–6.

Wagner, V., Li, T., Bayer, P., Leven, C., Dietrich, P., Blum, P. 2014. Thermal tracer testing in a heterogeneous sedimentary aquifer: Field experiment and numerical simulation, - Hydrogeology Journal, 22, 175–187.

Höyng, D., Daffonseca, F.M., Bayer, P., Oliveira, E., Perinotto, J.A.J., Reis, F., Weiss, H., Grathwohl, P. 2014. High-resolution aquifer analog of fluvial-aeolian sediments of the Pirambóia Formation in the Guaraní aquifer system, - Environmental Earth Sciences, 71, 3081–3094.



Jimenéz, S., Brauchler, R., Bayer, P. 2013. A new sequential procedure for hydraulic tomographic inversion, - Advances in Water Resources, 42, Part A, 59–70.

Menberg, K., Blum, P., Schaffitel, A., Bayer, P. 2013. Long Term Evolution of Anthropogenic Heat Fluxes into a Subsurface Urban Heat Island, - Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 9747−9755.

de Paly, M., Bürger, C.M., Bayer, P. 2013. Optimization under worst case constraints - a new global multimodel search procedure, - Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 48(6), 1153-1172.

Bayer, P., Rybach, L., Blum, P., Brauchler, R., 2013. Review of life cycle environmental effects of geothermal power generation, - Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26, 446-463.

Haehnlein, S., Bayer, P., Ferguson, G., Blum, P. 2013. Sustainability and policy for the thermal use of shallow geothermal energy, - Energy Policy, 59, 914–925.

Brauchler, R., Hu, R., Hu, L., Jimenez, S., Bayer, P., Dietrich, P., Ptak, T. 2013. Rapid field application of hydraulic tomography for resolving aquifer heterogeneity in unconsolidated sediments, - Water Resources Research, 49(4), 2013–2024.

Wagner, V., Blum, P., Kübert, M., Bayer, P. 2013. Analytical approach for groundwater-influenced thermal response tests of grouted borehole heat exchangers, - Geothermics, 46, 22-31.

Beck, M., Bayer, P., de Paly, M.,Hecht-Mendez, J., Zell, A. 2013. Geometric Arrangement and Operation Mode Adjustment in Low Enthalpy Geothermal Fields for Heating, - Energy, 49, 434-443.

Menberg, K., Bayer, P., Zosseder, K, Rumohr, S., Blum, P. 2013. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities, - Science of the Total Environment, 442, 123–133.

Hecht-Mendez, J., de Paly, M., Beck, M., Bayer, P., 2013. Optimization of energy extraction for vertical closed-loop geothermal systems considering groundwater flow, - Energy Conversion & Management, 66, 1–10.



de Paly, M., Hecht-Mendez, J., Beck, M., Blum, P., Zell, A., Bayer, P., 2012. Optimization of energy extraction for closed shallow geothermal systems using linear programming. Geothermics, 43, 57–65.

De Biase, C., Maier, U., Baeder-Bederski, O., Bayer, P., Oswald, S., Thullner, M. 2012. Removal of volatile organic compounds in vertical flow filters: predictions from reactive transport modeling, - Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 32 (2), 106–121.

Bayer, P., Saner, D., Bolay, S., Rybach, L., Blum, P., 2012. Greenhouse Gas Emission Savings of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Europe: A Review, - Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(2), 1256–1267.

Wagner, V., Bayer, P., Kübert, M., Blum, P. 2012. Numerical sensitivity study of thermal response tests, - Renewable Energy, 41, 245–253.



Becker, V., Myrttinen, A., Barth, J.A.C., Bayer, P. 2011. A Summary on the special Issue “Sustainability of Groundwater", - MDPI Sustainability Journal, 3(10), 1792-1795, doi: 10.3390/su3101792.

Hu, R., Brauchler, R., Herold, M., Bayer, P., 2011. Hydraulic tomography analogue study: Coupling travel time and steady shape inversion, - Journal of Hydrology, 409(1-2), 350-362.

Pfister, S., Bayer, P., Köhler, A., and S. Hellweg, 2011. Projected water consumption in future global agriculture: Scenarios and related impacts, - Science of the Total Environment, 409(20), 4206-4216.

Molina-Giraldo, N., Blum, P., Zhu, K., Bayer, P., and Z. Fang, 2011. A moving finite line source model to simulate borehole heat exchangers with groundwater advection, - International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50(12), 2506-2513.

Pfister, S., Bayer, P., Köhler, A., and S. Hellweg, 2011. Environmental impacts of water use in global agriculture: hotspots and trade-offs with land use, - Environ. Sci. & Technol., 45(13), 5761–5768.

Bayer, P., Huggenberger, P., Renard, P., and A. Comunian, 2011. Three-dimensional high resolution fluvio-glacial aquifer analog, Part 1: field study, - Journal of Hydrology, 405, 1-9.

Comunian, A., Renard, P., Straubhaar, J., and P. Bayer, 2011. Three-dimensional high resolution fluvio-glacial aquifer analog, Part 2: geostatistical modelling, - Journal of Hydrology, 405, 10-23.

Molina-Giraldo, N., Bayer, P., and P. Blum, 2011. Evaluating the influence of mechanical thermal dispersion on temperature plumes from geothermal systems using analytical solutions. - International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50(7), 1223-1231. [listed in "Most Cited International Journal of Thermal Sciences Articles"]

Molina-Giraldo, N., Bayer, P., Blum, P., and O.A. Cirpka, 2011. Propagation of seasonal temperature signals into an aquifer upon bank infiltration, - Ground Water, 49(4), 491-502.



Zhu, K., Blum, P., Ferguson, G., Balke, K-D., and P. Bayer, 2010. Geothermal potential of urban heat islands, - Environmental Research Letters, 5, 044002, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/5/4/044002.

Haehnlein, S., Bayer, P., and P. Blum, 2010. International Legal Status of the Use of Shallow Geothermal Energy, - Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9), 2611-2625.

Bayer, P., and C. Schüth, 2010. Technico-Economic Assessment of Groundwater Treatment by Palladium-on-Zeolite-Catalyst in Comparison to GAC Fixed Bed Adsorbers, - Water Science and Technology, 62(3), 708–718.

Hecht-Méndez, J., Molina-Giraldo, N. Blum, P., and P. Bayer, 2010. Evaluating MT3DMS for heat transport simulation of closed geothermal systems, - Ground Water, 48(5), 741-756.

Beck, M., Hecht-Méndez, J., de Paly, M., Bayer, P., Blum, P., Zell, A. 2010. Optimization of the energy extraction of a shallow geothermal system. IEEE Evolutionary Computation (CEC), 1-7.

Saner, D., Juraske, R., Kübert, M., Blum, P., Hellweg, S., and P. Bayer, 2010. Is it Only CO2 that Matters? A Life Cycle Perspective on Shallow Geothermal Systems, - Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 1798–1813.

Bayer, P., de Paly M., and C.M. Bürger, 2010. Optimization of high-reliability based hydrological design problems by robust automatic sampling of critical model realizations, - Water Resources Research, 46, W05504, doi:10.1029/2009WR008081.

Barth, J.A.C., Filmenau V., Bayer, P., Struckmeier, E., and P. Grathwohl, 2010. Global Water Balance – Book Chapter 12 in Strüngmann Forum Report, Linkages of Sustainability edited by T. E. Graedel and E. van der Voet. MIT Press ISBN: 0-262-01358-4.



Bayer, P., Pfister, S., and S. Hellweg, 2009. Indirect Water Management: How we all can participate, In: Improving Integrated Surface and Groundwater Resources Management in a Vulnerable and Changing World, - IAHS-publ. 330, 98-103.

Kollet, S., Cvijanovic, I., Schüttemeyer, D., Moene, A.F., and P. Bayer, 2009. Influence of the Sensible Heat of Rain, Subsurface Heat Convection and the Lower Temperature Boundary Condition on the Energy Balance at the Land Surface, - Vadose Zone Journal 8(4), 1-13.

Bayer P., Pfister, S. and S. Hellweg, 2009. On the potential of Life Cycle Assessment in Water Resources Management: Focus on Groundwater, - IAHS-publ. 327, Capri.

Maier, U., DeBiase, C., Baeder-Bederski, O., and P. Bayer, 2009. Calibration of hydraulic parameters for large-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands, - Journal of Hydrology, 369, 260-273.

Bayer P., Duran E., Baumann R., and M. Finkel, 2009. Optimized Groundwater Drawdown in a Subsiding Urban Mining Area, - Journal of Hydrology, 365 (1-2), 95-104.


2008 & earlier

Bayer P., Bürger C.M., and M. Finkel, 2008. Computationally efficient stochastic optimization using multiple realizations, - Advances in Water Resources, 31(2), 399-417.

Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2008. Solving demanding reliability based design problems in hydrogeology. - In: Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Credibility of Modelling, - IAHS Publ., 320, Copenhagen.

Bürger C., Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2007. Algorithmic funnel-and-gate system design optimization, - Water Resources Research 43, doi:10.1029/­2006WR005058.

Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2007. Optimization of concentration control by CMA-ES: formulation, application and assessment of remedial solutions, - Water Resources Research, 43, W02410, doi:10.1029/2005WR004753.

Kouznetsova I., Bayer P., Ebert M., and M. Finkel, 2007. Modelling the Long-term Performance of Zero-valent Iron Using a Spatiotemporal Approach for Iron Aging. - Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 90 (1-2), 58-80.

Finkel, M., Bayer, P., McKnight, U., Serapiglia, F., Kübert, M., 2007. Modelling Tools for the Selection and Optimisation of Contaminated Land Management Strategies. - Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, Special Issue 1/2007, 2007, doi:10.4408/ijege.2007-01.s-03

Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2006. Life Cycle Assessment of Active and Passive Groundwater Remediation Technologies, – Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 83 (3-4), 171-199.

Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2006. Conventional and Combined Pump-and-treat Systems under Non-uniform Background Flow, - Ground Water, 44 (2), 234-243.

Bayer P., Finkel M., and G. Teutsch, 2005. Cost-optimal Contaminant Plume Manage­ment with a Combination of Pump-and-treat and Physical Barrier Systems, - Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation , 25 (2), 96-106.

Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2005. Modeling of sequential groundwater treatment with zero valent iron and granular activated carbon, – Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 78, 129-146.

Maier U., Becht A., Kostic B., Bürger C., Bayer P., Teutsch G., and P. Dietrich, 2005. Characterization of Quaternary gravel aquifers and their implementation in hydrogeological models, - IAHS Publ., 297, 159-168.

Bayer P., Heuer E., Karl U., and M. Finkel, 2005. Economical and ecological comparison of granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber refill strategies, - Water Research 39, 1719-1728.

Bayer P., and M. Finkel, 2004. Evolutionary algorithms for the optimization of advective control of contaminated aquifer zones. - Water Resources Research , 40, W06506, doi:10.1029/2003WR002675.

Bayer P., Finkel M., and G. Teutsch, 2004. Combining Pump-and-Treat and Physical Barriers for Contaminant Plume Control. - Ground Water, 42 (6), 856-867.


Deutsche Beiträge


Radny, D., Schirmer, M., Luster, J., Guenat, C., Perona, P., Bayer, P., Stauffacher M., Seidl R., Hollender J., Baumann, M. 2018. Flussrevitalisierungsforschung. Wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zweier Forschungsprojekt im Einzugsgebiet der Thur. Aqua & Gas, 98(4), 30-38.

Storz, K., Steger, H., Wagner, V., Bayer, P., Blum, P. 2017. Methodenvergleich zur Bestimmung der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit, - Grundwasser, 22(10), doi :10.1007/s00767-017-0353-4.

Menberg, K., Steger, H., Zorn, R., Reuß, M., Pöll, M., Bayer, P., Blum, P. 2013. Bestimmung der thermischen Leitfähigkeit im Untergrund durch Labor- und Feldversuche, - Grundwasser, 18, 103–116.

Hähnlein, S., Blum, P., Bayer, P., 2011 . Oberflächennahe Geothermie – aktuelle rechtliche Situation, Grundwasser, 16(2), 69-75.

Brielmann, H., Lueders, T., Schreglmann, K., Ferraro, F., Blum, P., Bayer, P., Hammerl, V., Griebler, C., 2011. Oberflächennahe Geothermie und ihre potentiellen Auswirkungen auf die Grundwasserökologie, Grundwasser, 16(2), 77-91.

Hähnlein, S., N. Molina-Giraldo, P. Blum, P. Bayer, P. Grathwohl. 2010. Ausbreitung von Kältefahnen im Grundwasser bei Erdwärmesonden (Cold plumes in groundwater for ground source heat pump systems). Grundwasser , 15, 123-133.

Kübert, M., Walker-Hertkorn, S., Blum, P., Bayer, P., Hähnlein, S. 2009. Praktische Hinweise zur Genehmigungspraxis der thermischen Nutzung des Untergrundes. bbr - Fachmagazin für Brunnen- und Leitungsbau, Sonderausgabe Geothermie, 8-13.

Hähnlein, S., Kübert, M., Walker-Hertkorn, S., Bayer P., und P. Blum, 2009. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen bei der Grundwasserbewirtschaftung. bbr - Fachmagazin für Brunnen- und Leitungsbau, Sonderausgabe Geothermie, 14-20.

Finkel. M., Bayer P., Weiske A. 2008. Technisch-ökonomische Bewertungs- und Optimierungsstrategien für die Grundwassersanierung, Altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V. Stuttgart. Heft 5, 40 p. link

Walker-Hertkorn, S., Hähnlein, S., Kübert, M., Blum, P., Bayer, P. Rechtliche Situation bei der thermischen Grundwassernutzung in Deutschland. bbr - Fachmagazin für Brunnen- und Leitungsbau, 10/2008, 46-51.

Rügner H., Henzler R., Bittens M., Weiß H., Leven C., Bayer P., und M. Finkel 2007. SAFIRA II - Revitalisierungskonzepte für großskalige Boden- und Grund­wasser­verunreinigungen. altlastenspektrum (1/2007).

Bayer P., Finkel, M., und G. Teutsch, 2004. Kombinierte „Pump-and-treat“-Barrieren-Systeme, Teil I: Minimierung der Grundwasserentnahmerate durch hydraulische Zusatzmaßnahmen. Grundwasser 3(9), 173-180.

Bayer P., Finkel, und G. Teutsch, 2004. Kombinierte „Pump-and-treat“-Barrieren-Systeme, Teil II: Vergleichende Kostenanalyse. Grundwasser 3(9), 181-193.